The reign of Charles I saw only a few tracts of woodland in England that still covered more than twenty square miles. Those Who Worked: An Anthology of Medieval Sources, Italica Press: New York, 1997. Basically, smelting is the process of melting down ore in order to separate its metallic components from impurities. The Mennonites left Germany because they were persecuted for refusing to perform military service on the basis of religious objections. Colonial families were large, and these small dwellings had much activity and there was little privacy. In New York's fertile Hudson River Valey, soil and climate favored diversified agriculture. The oldest university in the South, , was founded in 1693 in Virginia; it pioneered in the teaching of and educated future U.
Unlike English colonial wives, German and Dutch wives owned their own clothes and other items and were also given the ability to write wills disposing of the property brought into the marriage. At the beginning of the 16th century, the political power of the kings was increasing in most Western European nations. Quaker William Penn In order to avoid the kinds of problems that plagued the old cities of Europe, Philadelphia was carefully surveyed and mapped out ahead of time, ensuring that the streets were wide, the docks were well-situated and homes, business and government buildings were spread apart. Existing conditions of natural resources greatly affected the development of technical innovation in the field of iron manufacture. The main commercial center of Philadelphia was run mostly by prosperous Quakers, supplemented by many small farming and trading communities with strong German contingents located in the Delaware River Valley.
The Colonial Population The population of the American colonies through the 18th century was primarily a mixture of immigrants from different countries in Europe and slaves from Africa. Europeans were intolerant of non-Catholic religions, of people who were different, and of the poor. Eventually, it was a dispute over the meaning of some of these political ideals especially and that led to the. When Penn's father died, William suggested that the king could give him land in America as repayment of the debt. At town meetings, however, there was opportunity for discussion of public problems, and settlers thereby received a certain amount of experience in selfgovernment. After more than eight months in prison, Zenger was defended in court by Philadelphia lawyer, Andrew Hamilton.
In the fall of 1999, he testified before a congressional committee to disabuse members of Congress of their optimism and to warn them of what was to come. Though the Quakers dominated in Philadelphia, elsewhere in Pennsylvania other strains were well represented, The Germans came from a war-ravaged land in large numbers, asking for the chance to earn their bread. Southern Colonies The Southern Colonies were economically dominated by the wealthy planters in Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina even though much of the population of the south consisted of enslaved Africans. To that end, and to avoid trouble with the British government, they encouraged Protestants as well as Catholics to settle. Even while Plymouth struggled for existence, other settlements were planted nearby.
And many Dutch customs -like the habit of calling on one's neighbors and sharing a drink with them on New Year's Day and the visit of jovial Saint Nicholas at Christmas time - became countrywide customs which have survived to the present day. On July 2, 1776, New Jersey enacted the , soon after having empowered delegates to the Continental Congress, on June 21, to join in a declaration of independence. Common Sense called for independence and challenged the largely accepted notion that a good government employed a balance of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. Estimates of those executed for heresy - beliefs or opinions that disagreed with Catholic doctrine - during the three-and-a-half centuries range from 4,000 to 30,000. The colonial western frontier was mainly settled from about 1717 to 1775, mostly by Presbyterian settlers who were feeling hard times and persecution in northern England border lands, Scotland, and the northern portion of Ireland. Harvard College was founded in 1636 in Massachusetts. The Colonies New York - originally settled in 1624 by the Dutch as the New Netherlands.
Britain occupied Florida but did not send many settlers to the area, and control was restored to Spain in 1783 by the which ended the. Americans sued each other at a very high rate, with binding decisions made by local judges and juries instead of a great lord as in Britain. Attendance on election days also served as a means of civic education and communal reinforcement of the appropriate, expected behavior of young males. A colonial woman was expected to be subservient to her father until she married, at which point she became subservient to her husband. These people were probably the poorest of all because no one cared for them except out of charity. Most colonists were farmers about 80% by the American Revolution B. They owned increasingly large plantations that were worked by African slaves.
As part of the colonization process, were brought to the island in 1513. Under the terms of the Virginia and Massachusetts Bay charters, for example, complete governmental authority was vested in the companies involved, and it was expected that these companies would be resident in England. Many people had their shops and homes in the same building. The English captured the Colony from the Dutch in 1664, renaming it the Province of New York after the King's brother, the Duke of York later King. Its ethnic makeup included the original settlers a group of rich, slave-owning English settlers from the island of Barbados and , a French-speaking community of Protestants. Nevertheless, each region strongly influenced the other, for despite physical separation, there was a constant interplay of forces.
Luther took full advantage of the newest technology in Europe to inform Germans of his ideas - movable type printing press developed by Johann Gutenberg. They cleared tracts in the wilderness, burned the brush, and cultivated com and wheat among the stumps. Although the Swedes and the Dutch fought over the land in the 1630s through the ultimately the Dutch claimed the land, calling it. Little religious toleration, free speech, or democratic practices. Thomas Jefferson: Founding father and third president of the United States. Before long, New Amsterdam was the most important port on the east coast. Selected slaves often became skilled horse trainers.
On a more local level, governmental power was invested in county courts, which were self-perpetuating the incumbents filled any vacancies and there never were popular elections. There was even a Jewish congregation - which would have been unthinkable in other colonies. Man the Maker: A History of Technology and Engineering, London, 1958. They especially followed the development of republican ideas in England. The Quakers are an important religious group throughout American history, especially early American history.