While this was going well for the Pueblos at a certain time, once it started to be negatively affecting their communities, the Spanish were no longer deemed a positive presence in these communities and were expelled. Through the combined effects of the brutality of Spanish rule and Franciscan conversion, the introduction of European diseases, slaving raids that regularly sent Puebloans south to be sold in Mexico City, and a long drought and famine that had begun in the 1670s, the indigenous population was smaller in 1680 than it had been when colonization began. Popé promised that, once the Spanish were killed or expelled, the ancient Pueblo gods would reward them with health and prosperity. University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque. They forced the Indians to make things for them. On 21 the Spaniards were forced to flee, leaving 400 dead, including 21 priests.
Veda Boyd Jones See also; ;. Popé's plan was that the inhabitants of each Pueblo would rise up and kill the Spanish in their area and then all would advance on Santa Fe to kill or expel all the remaining Spanish. So, Michelle, if you could just start by giving us a sense of the main outline of colonial relations in New Mexico. Perhaps because of this association, Liebmann found virtually no black-and-white pottery at the new sites. He hung those Indians who were known to practice witchcraft.
Taos Pueblo today The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was brought about by years of Spanish cruelty and barbarism practiced on the indigenous inhabitants. They managed to kill Governor Charles Bent and others and marchedon Santa Fe. After I sent my last letter to your reverence by the maese de campo, Pedro de Leiva, while the necessary things were being made ready alike for the escort and in the way of provisions, for the most expeditious dispatch of the returning wagons and their guards, as your reverence had enjoined me, I received information that a plot for a general uprising of the Christian Indians was being formed and was spreading rapidly. Yes, the droughts and famines had a big effect on the situation, but these catalysts just furthered the animosity the indians had towards the white. The Parliament of 1380 passed a poll tax per head for the entire population. The old ways of the Indians were almost completely gone. He demanded also that his wife and children be given up to him, and likewise that all the Apache men and women whom the Spaniards had captured in war be turned over to them, inasmuch as some Apaches who were among them were asking for them.
They stay there until 1692. The unrest among the Pueblos came to a head in 1675. Native resistance was met with a brutal response. Thus, after God, the only succor and relief that we have rests with your reverence and in your diligence. And this coupled with the Spanish practice of consolidating the Pueblos, which means that they would take these numerous communities and reorganize them.
Because of the Spanish taxes, the tribes had nothing stored up and many people died of hunger that year. As punishment for what had happened at the Acoma Pueblo, the Spanish actually really brutally punished the Pueblos. Work began at dawn on his few strips of land and he was obligated to work on his lord's land 3 days a week, tend and shear his sheep, feed his swine, sow and reap his crops. Wherefore, and in order that your reverence may come immediately, because of the great importance to God and the king of your reverence's presence here, I am sending the said maese de campo, Pedro de Leiva, with the rest of the men whom he brought so that he may come as escort for your reverence and the wagons or mule-train in which we hope you will bring us some assistance of provisions. To even contact Mexico City could take a year, and that would be the best scenario. However, in 1598, Zutacapan, the Acoma and leader, learned that the Spanish emissaries intended to conquer Acoma Pueblo by force.
Many of the stories have to do with the months-long siege endured by the warriors of San Ildefonso and several other pueblos there in 1694. We passed this night, like the rest, with much care and watchfulness, and suffered greatly from thirst because of the scarcity of water. The high water mark of the Spanish Empire's expansion into the New World reached. On the Hopi lands little happened at first. If these things were not done they would declare war immediately, and they were unwilling to leave the place where they were because they were awaiting the Taos, Percuries, and Teguas nations, with whose aid they would destroy us. About 500 of the survivors were Indian slaves. Because of the draught, they were hungry.
Missionaries were aware of this and used it as a strategy for conversion. Remains of the Mission Church at Then came the Spaniards. . In Taos there was a revolt. And what provoked the Pueblo revolt of 1680? The deaths of both parties in this and the other encounters exceeded three hundred Indians. He also penalized Spanish language use and discouraged surnames and even preached against using the plow, a Spanish tool. Having sent the aid for which he asked me, and an order for those families of Los Cerrillos to cone to the villa, I instantly arranged for all the people in it and its environs to retire to the casas reales.
Archived from on September 18, 2009. A result of this was the creation of feast days and the renaming of many of the Pueblos after saints. Because of the haste which the case demands I do not write at more length, and for the same reason I can not make a report at present concerning the above to the senor viceroy, because the autos are not verified and there has been no opportunity to conclude them. Pueblo Revolt Differences between cultures are not something new. They fatigued us greatly on this day, because all was fighting, and above all we suffered from thirst, as we were already oppressed by it. The southern Tiwa and the Piro were more thoroughly integrated into Spanish culture than the other groups. When Oñate learned of the incident, he ordered Juan's brother, , to lead an expedition to punish the Acoma and set an example for other Pueblos.
It established Indian independence in the pueblos for more than a decade, and even after Spanish domination was re-imposed it forced the imperial authorities to observe religious tolerance. Therefore, each pueblo was self-governing, and some, or all, apparently resisted Popé's demands for a return to a pre-Spanish existence. In the end, 21 of the 40 missionaries in Nuevo México had been killed, along with up to 400 other Spaniards. Each morning the Pueblo leadership was to untie one knot from the cord, and when the last knot was untied, that would be the signal for them to rise against the Spaniards in unison. In 1661, the leader of the Franciscans gave orders to the Spaniards to immediately destroy any and all Indian religious objects they came across.
They inhabited upward of 90 villages, known as pueblos. Many of us can still see it in our daily lives. When things were going well in New Mexico, the Pueblos were happy with Christianity, but once there were droughts or famines or things of that nature, the Pueblo people started questioning that religion. Pueblo people have been able to maintain a great deal of their traditions because of the respect they won in the 1680 rebellion. They were finally defeated after taking refuge in SanGeronimo Mission Church.