With gendered approaches to appearance, behaviors, and roles in courtship, relationships, and sex, these lesbians innovatively navigated dominant postwar ideologies while creating a distinctly queer cultural form: butch-femme. Let Nobody Turn Us Around: Voices of Resistance, Reform, and Renewal. Fascinated by her personal transformation and then, in the 1950s, moved by her battle with cancer, journalists gave Didrikson's comeback extensive coverage and helped make her a much-loved popu- lar figure. Contrary to claims made by feminist scholars in the seventies, Nestle insists that these women, the butches and femmes of the fifties, were in fact feminist, that they exercised the very autonomy of sexual and social identities that feminism claimed to want for all women. A few women remained unaware of lesbians or even the stereotype. And as much as I like a woman in a suit. This is the argument that Adrienne Rich makes, in the essay discussed above, when she claims that compulsory heterosexuality exists to perpetuate male dominance, which does not exists naturally but must be replicated through the institutionalization of male-female roles.
Athletes from Tuskegee Institute's national championship track teams of the late 1930s and 1940s described an atmosphere of catnpuswide enthu- siastic support. Gay Folklore and Acculturation ill Middle Ameriut Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989 , 62. The strong association of sports with lesbianism devel- oped at the same time as Black athletes became a dominant presence in American sport culture. In John Waters' recent film Pecker, for example, New York drag king Mo B Dick plays a stripper at the beginning of the film, a drag king at the end and then in the closing scene she strips off her drag to reveal the stripper again. The idea of a mannish lesbian was often associated with progressive causes such as suffrage and not generally submersive Bronski 115. Butch-Femme Roles as Challenging Heterosexuality Those academics who wish to argue that butch-femme roles challenge rather than uncritically replicate heterosexual roles typically employ a historical approach which examines not male representations of lesbian sexuality but what lesbians themselves have had to say about role playing in their own lives. Unpacking Queer Politics: A Lesbian Feminist Perspective 1st ed.
By far the most exciting drag king scene in the United States at present is in the Midwest in Columbus, Ohio where the H. The history of female masculinity for this reason only slightly overlaps with the history of lesbian feminism; it is more properly a history of male-identified women. In her 1988 book, Lesbian Ethics: Towards a New Value, lesbian philosopher alludes to lesbian separatism's potential to encourage lesbians to develop healthy community ethics based on shared values. She lives in Boston, Massachusetts and enjoys exploring New England with her partner and dog. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. It comes from the very women who should be our most stalwart supporters, undermining lesbians in their quest for equity.
In other words, butchness and even masculinity itself are nothing but performative roles, complete with codes and symbols available for the use of anyone, regardless of biological sex. According to Smith-Rosenberg, the first generation of New Women was, however, tolerated to some extent because even though they seemed to want access to male social privilege, it was not thought that their desires extended to the level of sexuality; in other words, even though these women frequently formed close, intensely emotional primary bonds with other women, their relationships were understood by the dominant culture to be asexual. Sport provided social and psychic space for some lesbians to validate themselves and to build a collective culture. And trying to put a name to it. And when they looked in the mirror and did not see the masculinity that was supposed to accompany their desire for other women gazing back at them, some femmes simultaneously doubted their queerness, yet felt queerer than ever for failing to fit into a recognizable paradigm. Some of the lesbian feminist groups, however, were skeptical of separatism. I hope my work can help to reimagine the complex set of relations between sexuality, gender, race and class.
The research of Madeline Davis and Elizabeth Kennedy work towards similar ends as Nestle and Wilson, although they narrow their focus considerably by concentrating only on the working-class lesbian community of Buffalo, New York in the forties and fifties, and using oral history as their primary resource. The pride, pleasure, companionship, and dignity lesbians found in the athletic world helped them survive in a hostile society. Well you know, the more masculine ones, I would think, wouldn't it be nice to know these girls. Homosexuality is his disease with which he sinisterly infects Third World people, men and women alike. Additionally, lesbian feminism advocates lesbianism as a rational result of and dissatisfaction with these institutions. Young lesbians are told that they are just going through a phase and haven't met the right man.
Let's talk about one of the straightest things I've ever enjoyed. Some key thinkers and activists are , , , , , , , , , , , , , and although the latter is more commonly associated with the emergence of. Physical Education Director, Official Reports, Kristin Powell's collected materials on Rad- cliffe Athletics, Radcliffe College Archives, acc. In 1930, an American Mercury medical reporter decried the de- cline of romantic love, pinning the blame on women who entered sport, business, and politics. According to Roof, representations of lesbian sexuality in the dominant discourse often evoke the phallus by calling attention to its absence or its substitution in sexual relations between women, so that it appears and seems necessary, at least symbolically, because of the inconceivability of sexuality without a phallus present. Where is the discourse over lesbians being denied visitation with their children? This model ignored individuals who were gender-conforming but homoerotically inclined.
Or, like me, are you merely an observer?. Jeffreys states that while gay men are unlikely to women, bisexual men are just as likely to be troublesome to women as heterosexual men. They may cover up their masculinity, they may adjust it, they may flaunt it but part of what it means to be a masculine woman has to do with being recognized as non-feminine or unwomanly. Really that's the only characteristic we all incontrovertibly have in common. Young people coming out in this decade may be forgiven for not quite knowing what their experiences of cross-identification may mean.
The more of them turned, the better! But I was so much younger. This environment could facilitate the corning-out process, allowing women who were unsure about or just beginning to explore their sexual identity to socialize with gay and straight women without having to make irnme- diate decisions or declarations. Without an emotional, heartfelt grappling with the source of our own oppression, without naming the enemy within ourselves and outside of us, no authentic, non-hierarchical connection among oppressed groups can take place. Butch-Femme Roles as Replicas of Heterosexuality The main assumption underlying the feminist disdain of role-playing is that roles depend on sexual difference, which is inherently hierarchical, polarizing, and oppressive. But the permissive atmosphere did not survive the war's end.
Some women fit the first scenario, describing how, in their struggle to accept and make sense out of lesbian desire, sport offered a kind of home that put feelings and identities into place. This is a position marked by intense controversy. It includes interviews with drag kings and descriptions of events and relies heavily upon the drag kings' own statements about their performances. There are many other forms of misrecognition that are particular to identity formation, some pathological, the anorexic, for example, who misrecognizes her body weight some pleasurable, but female masculinity names one particular outcome, of repeated gender misrecognition. And worse yet, the excitement of sport would cause women to lose control, conjur- ing up images of knzied, distraught co-eds on the verge of moral, phys- ical, and emotional breakdown. We are the feminists among the people of our culture.