The biological theory of crime, or biological positivism, argues that crime is mainly due to physical and mental degeneracies in criminals and criminals are biologically inferior. This causes the explanations provided by different criminological theories to vary. Consequently, a delicate balance exists between the freedom of pregnant women to enjoy themselves and the future of their unborn babies. What I will be evaluating these theories against will be small scale property crime such as theft. So, Lombroso's theory does not seem to me as very acceptable.
These born criminals are a throwback to an earlier stage of human evolution with the physical makeup, mental capabilities, and instincts of primitive man. The crime rate differentiates because of culture. Three theories that attempt to investigate that causation of crime and criminal behavior are labeling theories, modern biological theories, and psychoanalytical theory. His work Criminal Woman 1893 included sections on adultery, frigidity, lesbianism, masturbation and premarital sex, as well as a discussion on the causes and characteristics of prostitution. It is best understood in terms of the manner in which the individual experiences the biological, psychological and socially determined situations of his existence. His theories are no longer valid today.
Through time, scholars have used different arguments to support the biological theory of crime causation, and the earliest scholars to propose the theory include Joseph Gall, Cesare Lombroso, and Johann Spurzheim. Aggressive behavior enables individuals to expand and protect their territories, and this influences certain types of crimes. Use the order calculator below and get ordering with accurateessays. He stated that criminals had distinct facial features for example a large protruding jaw, large ears, extra toes and that they had no guilt and were unable to distinguish right from wrong. Another criminologist, Charles Goring, carried out similar studies on human physiological characteristics and determined that there were no major statistical differences between the features of criminals and the rest of the population.
Lombroso identified several different physical anomalies which could confirm that an individual was at a higher risk of being a criminal. A familiar face Lombroso was a well-known personality in Italy, giving sell-out lectures and talks, and commenting on all kinds of things in the popular press. Later in his career Lombroso modified 1680 Words 7 Pages Causes of Crime: Theory Reflection There are rarely simple answers when it comes to human behavior. She was thought to be suffering from hysteria and had been vomiting, sleepwalking and complaining of fatigue. Naturally, when this man was defrosted and interacted with others in the 1990s, he was ignorant to the norms of behavior for people living during that time.
The age of criminals allows them to cope with pain in case of physical injury. In the postwar period other, more sociological, explanations for criminal behaviour became more popular, and thus biological theories were largely rejected. For example Lombroso describe an atavistic criminal as one who possesses primitive traits that can be linked to evolutionary times. The occasional criminal can be described as the one who commits a crime spontaneously and the habitual criminal commits crimes because of the company he keeps, committing crimes through imitation of his peers. The sociological theory of crime does not believe that human are born criminals, it is the environment that they live in in which affects they way human act. Although anthropometric measurements were correct, the causal connection between human physical traits and criminality was deceptive. Crimes of passion are also due to aggressive behavior in the culprits.
The physical characteristics, such as flat noses, large lips, strong jawlines, and thick, coarse hair, were all attributed to a person's propensity to commit crime because these characteristics were noted of persons who had already been convicted of crimes - specifically prisoners. Middle-aged individuals between 30 and 39 years engage in alcohol-related offenses such as drunk driving. In his studies, Lombroso analyzed physical traits of such as brain and skull sizes, physique, shapes of noses and methods of self-expression among criminals through tattoos and graffiti. Among these were the following: 01. Furthermore, research conducted on police sub cultural behavior shows that police officers have similar stereotypes on particular racial groups. Like Ferri, he believed crime was more the result of a lack in moral sensibilities rather than a physiological problem. Lombroso and his fellow criminal anthropologists also challenged these ideas, and were the first to advocate the study of crime and criminals from a scientific perspective.
For instance, drug peddlers normally apply violent methods to protect their territories from rival peddlers or cartels. All the biological theories are based on the notion that biological markers foreordain criminal behavior. Genes Researchers indicate that genes indirectly influence criminal activity due to the influence of genes on various hormones such a dopamine and serotonin. As a result, this enabled Lombroso to argue the reason for crimes being outlawed because as Lombroso interpreted it, human beings were just reproducing similar acts that were customary in evolutionary pasts. In 1949, William Sheldon also suggested that crime and body types were connected. Lombroso, was a firm believer that criminality was inheritable and that there was a divergent biological category of humans that were susceptible to criminality. His famous median occipital fossa has been discredited and nowadays every skull is considered helpful for criminal profiling.
For instance, polymorphism in the D2 receptor gene enhances chances of substance abuse in an individual. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to engage in property crimes that other criminals while individuals between 20 and 29 years engage in crimes that are more violent. In the text Criminal Man Mary Gibson and Nicole Hahn Rafter, 2006 , Lombroso retells a moment in his life were he filled his leisure time working as a doctor for the Italian army. Atavism is a term associated with biological theories of crime and Cesare Lombroso of the Italian school of criminology in the late 1800s. Advertisement Diana Bretherick is a lecturer in criminology and criminal justice at the University of Portsmouth, and the author of Orion, 2015 , which features Cesare Lombroso as a character investigating a series of abductions and murders while he begins his research into criminal women. In his later years, he eventually thought that social and environmental factors can contribute to criminality.