We still need to have a clearer grasp of what the tasks we actually set in the classroom imply in terms of different learning styles, and, in turn, in terms of possible learning strategies. By Richard Riding Cognitive style may well turn out to be the missing element in the study of individual differences. Last, but not least, a third, rather more general objective was to use the questionnaire as a starting point for promoting the awareness of learning styles in both teachers and students. Group preference learning with other learners 6. Asking students to consider their own strengths and weaknesses is different from teaching solely to their strengths. In this paper I will be discussing three main issues: - what are learning styles? Squire, 2003 Video Games in Education. Learning and cognitive styles 5.
Further down the line we meet learning styles - how personality works in a learning context, for example in the classroom; styles reflect the individual s consistent and preferred learning approach, an approach which he or she exhibits time and time again, in a wide range of situations and contexts - and not necessarily in school contexts. How much do they help us as teachers to offer different opportunities in different tasks, but also within the same task? However, I think a lot remains to be done in this area. Feelers are appreciative and their decisions are made on personal and humanistic considerations. Practicality is less important to you than a good logical explanation. Learning Styles Centers Learning style is a concept utilized worldwide.
Cognitive concerns the perception and processing of information within the brain. In 1995, researcher Rita Dunn of St. David Kolb Kolb developed an entire learning cycle, which includes elements of feeling, watching, thinking, and doing. Kolb felt that moving through the different steps in this cycle was very important to being a reflective learner. You may not be able to change the basic learning style. I wanted my project to be practical rather than academic, to contribute first and foremost to the improvement of communication in the classroom -so I chose those parameters which I felt would be most interesting for both students and teachers to think and talk about: · analytic vs synthetic; · form- vs communication-oriented; · reflective vs impulsive; · independent vs dependent meaning, in this case, how far one tends to be autonomous and personally responsible for one´s learning ; ·and, finally, individual- vs group-oriented meaning how far one prefers to work on one´s own rather than with others.
So if we simply chose to adapt materials, activities and teaching styles to our learners favourite approach, if we asked them to perform only in ways which come easy to them, we would not be doing them a good service after all. D Different Cognitive Learning Strategies - Some Tips and Suggestions By Andrew Loh Children have different cognitive learning strategies to refine their intellect and skills. Simultaneous and Successive Learning This is a very curious example of cognitive learning technology because it separates learning process in two distinctive ways. Of course, in this case we would be making more demands on our students, so we would probably need to offer them some help, for instance by providing a series of explicit steps to follow in order to do the task. In nature, some children are low conceptual learners. Field independence versus field dependence is probably the most well known style. What exactly can we see in this picture? This is an important issue, because sometimes, rather than directly changing our own teaching style, which might seem a daunting prospect to many of us, we might instead think of incorporating an approach we are not familiar with, or do not particularly favour, into the materials we use.
This is fine, since in this way we are providing different learning opportunities to suit different styles. In designing the questionnaire which I have used in my project on learning styles , I obviously had to face the problem of deciding which descriptions of learning styles to include and which ones to leave out. The quartet are sometimes referred to as. The goal is to leave learners in their preferred area to the extent 100 Franziska Spring-Keller possible and not to force them to learn other styles that are preset by the designer or creator of the learning environment. However, they are categorical type of thinkers who can crystallize the lessons they learn in their classroom. Be active in setting up the experiments at your table e. Cognition in children is an in-built mechanism.
This implies, as we have seen, helping them to recognize the purpose and the demands of a task, and then helping them to use also what is not their preferred style. However, reflective learning takes time and practice. These aspects support situated learning in the respective context. In other words, you will tend to be the analytical and sequential sort of learner. The fact that many students have a balanced learning style doesn t necessarily mean that they can automatically and efficiently switch, so to say, from one style to another, nor that they can match the styles to the learning situation. If we set choose to set all of the difficulties associated with the measurement of learning styles aside, the next question would then be how to tailor instruction to particular learning styles and would this lead to better teaching and better learning? If you take a formal approach, you can devise tests, questionnaires and interviews, or use one of the several ready-made questionnaires and interview formats which are now available see e.
It may not be possible to control this trait in children because it is an inherited quality. The second specific objective was to verify if the descriptions I had chosen were somehow related. In addition, current research studies supporting its continued popularity are presented. As regards the social orientation, you could draw a similar distinction Fig. That is, learners who reported preferring a particular instructional technique typically did not derive any instructional benefit from experiencing it. On the other hand, if you tend to be an extroverted type of person, this will probably mean that you need a stimulus of higher intensity to activate your mind; you will like a richer and more varied input.
So the first, and perhaps easiest, way to identify learning styles is to describe them in terms of polar oppositions, as we have just done for a more in-depth discussion see Prokop 1989 and Schmeck 1988; see also. Karen has been a fan of paintings and portraits since before we began dating. On the other hand, high conceptual learners are very quick learners and they use an inventive type of approach to learn their lessons. Two main areas concerning learning styles are Cognitive and Affective. The principled action that exemplifies individuals' success is recognizing, understanding, appreciating and, most importantly, valuing the diversity of learning, thinking, and working styles. I know she said this to curb my tendency of being such a museum sourpuss, but it did actually have an impact on me. Lewiston, Edwin Mellen Press, 1989.