Other Sudanese monarchs had undertaken the pious journey in previous centuries, but the very scale and opulence of Musa's caravan made an impact on Cairo and Mecca which was remembered for years. Think of Mansa Musa v. Four of the amirs stand behind him to drive off flies, with ornaments of silver in their hands. Muslim countries at this time normally excluded females from formal schooling. Africans traded gold, ivory, hides, and slaves for Arab and Berber salt, cloth, paper, and horses. Timbuktu soon became a center of trade, culture, and Islam; markets brought in merchants from , Egypt, and other African kingdoms, a university was founded in the city as well as in the Malian cities of and , and Islam was spread through the markets and university, making Timbuktu a new area for Islamic scholarship.
Many Arab and Berber traders gradually settled in these towns as merchants. According to an account by , Mansa Musa was alive when the city of in Algeria was conquered in 1337, as he sent a representative to Algeria to congratulate the conquerors on their victory. He mentions eating camel meat along the way, and trading glass beads and salt for millet, rice, milk, chickens, fish, melons and pumpkins, and other local foods. He headed for Iraq, Western Persia, then Yemen and the Swahili coast of East Africa. Ibn Battuta complained about being given millet porridge with a little honey and yogurt by a host.
Not until 1353 did he make his final voyage, this time by camel caravan across the Sahara desert to the empire of Mali. The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century. This is the only time recorded in history that one man directly controlled the price of gold in the. Since this map was made in 1375, it did not exist yet when Ibn Battuta went to Mali. By the mid-sixteenth century, Mali was no longer an important political, economic, or cultural center in West Africa. Mali also supplied other trade items - ivory, ostrich feathers, kola nuts, hides, and slaves. Although these rulers did a lot of things similarly, there were a few differences in how they ruled and accomplished tasks.
He spread the influence of Islam, and as a faithful Muslim, he made a pilgrimage to Mecca. In 1325, the year after Marco Polo's death, another young traveler, Ibn Battuta, embarked on a tour of Asia and Africa that lasted nearly 30 years. He lavishly praised the good character and generosity of the local rulers he encountered and was very pleased with the abundance of food and the fertility of Gao. But the real source of Mali's success was its flourishing commerce with Muslim merchants and caravan traders. One of his traveling companions died from the same food! Ibn Battuta similarities Mansa Musa Traveled to Mecca by foot. The water was salty, too, and food had to be brought from the outside. Rihla is one of four forms of travel encouraged by Islam, the best known of which is Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina.
The effect of this sudden glut of gold on Egypt was an inflation still observable 12 years later when al-Umari visited Cairo and recorded much of what we now know about Musa and Mali. In his early like he made his pilgramage to Mecca. After this point he is fairly well covered in the tarikhs Moslem chronicles of North Africa and the western Sudan, which tell of his reign as a golden age. However, Mansa Musa had to face his own test of humility because it was required, when greeting the sultan, to kiss the ground. As a leader, he had a lot of power. The value of gold in Egypt decreased as much as 25 percent. The Empire of Mali took over this area in the early 1200s and soon adopted Islam as its official religion.
For example, he expected the sexes to be separated in an Islamic society. The empire became known for its wealth and powerful leaders such as Mansa Musa I. The royal caravan of the mansa sultan or king included thousands of attendants and slaves along with 100 camels loaded with bags of gold. By 1300, the Muslims had expelled the last of the Christian crusaders from the Holy Land. Landing in this blisteringly hot Malian town in the southwestern corner of the Sahara feels a little like arriving at the end of the earth. Ibn battuta was a 14th century Muslim traveler who covered about 75000 miles.
Bovill, The Golden Trade of the Moors 1958; rev. Mansa Musa is remembered for his extravagant Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca , which he performed in 1324. Here workers loaded great slabs of salt which was in great demand in Mali. The original version is housed at the , but this image is a clip from a website that hosts very high-definition images of the map panels. Mansa Musa had built mosques and minarets and established Friday prayer-days in Mali. Internal commerce and agriculture flourished, and the order and prosperity found in Mali in 1352-1353 by the famous Arab traveler Ibn Battuta were largely attributable to Musa's enlightened leadership earlier in the century. Taghaza was a desolate place.
There came forth from the gate of the palace about 300 slaves, some carrying in their hands bows and others having in their hands short lances and shields. The qadi had to be a scholar of the law and above suspicion of ever accepting bribes. He was accused of lying by some contemporaries, though the veracity of those claims is widely disputed. When Ibn Battuta came to Timbuktu in 1353, it was becoming the major center of Islamic learning in black Africa. Who set up the kingdom of Mali? From vast reaches of Islamic empire to Mecca. Instead, its fame rested on its reputation as a city of scholars. Musa's son and successor, Mansa Magha Keita, was also appointed deputy during Musa's pilgrimage.
Ibn Battuta viewed this as an insult to Islam. Zimbabwe culture was very diverse. In the cities of Cairo, Medina, and Mecca, the sudden influx of gold devalued the metal for the next decade. Growth of cities due to increased trade 60. London: Oriental Translation Committee, 1829.