History of english vocabulary. Words in Time: A Social History of the English Vocabulary by Geoffrey Hughes 2019-01-16

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Words in Time: A Social History of the English Vocabulary by Geoffrey Hughes

history of english vocabulary

The countries with the highest populations of English speakers are the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Ireland, Australia, and surprisingly, India. The gruel disappeared, the boys whispered each other and winked at Oliver, while his next neighbours nudged him. The assistants were paralysed with wonder, and the boys with fear. Even after the decline of Norman, standard French retained the status of a formal or , and about 10,000 French and Norman loan words entered Middle English, particularly terms associated with government, church, law, the military, fashion, and food see and. Lee thanks his men for their sacrifice and explains that the outcome is not due to their performance. Old Norse often provided direct alternatives or synonyms for Anglo-Saxon words, both of which have been carried on e.


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vocabulary

history of english vocabulary

The History of the English Language. Sum men seyn þat þei han the body vpward as an egle, and benethe as a lyoun: and treuly þei seyn soth þat þei ben of þat schapp. If the meaning of the message was clear, the spelling of individual words seemed unimportant. Around the mid-nineteenth century, supporters of women's suffrage began a decades-long campaign to achieve what many considered to be a radical change to the U. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. It borrowed heavily from the French. The extensive between Old English and Old Norse speakers, including the possibility of intermarriage that resulted from the in 878, undoubtedly influenced the varieties of those languages spoken in the areas of contact.

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From old English to modern English

history of english vocabulary

Then he traveled still north as far as he might sail in another three days. O' Sullivan contrasts nations with bloody histories which oppress them with America, which he sees as free of such hindrances and therefore free to march towards the future- the future being America's rightful domain. This led to the Civil Rights Act of 1957. Some that end in t or d have three forms only: cut, cuts, cutting. When Danish rule ended, and particularly after the , the status of the minority Norse language presumably declined relative to that of English, and its remaining speakers assimilated to English in a process involving and. The Dutch in later New York and settlements gave the words boss, cookie, dope, snoop, and waffle to American speech.

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English language

history of english vocabulary

During the course of thousands of years, English words have been slowly simplified from the inflected variable forms found in , , , , and German, toward invariable forms, as in and. The following table presents some common examples: From Spanish: aficionado, amigo, burrito, canyon, caramba, cargo, embargo, guacamole, guitar, macho, marijuana, mustang, poncho, pueblo, rodeo, taco, plaza, vanilla From Modern French: caf, lingerie, connoisseur , coup d'atat, en route, hors d'auvre, panache, sabotage, envelope, and avalanche, not to mention chic, vis-a-vis, attach, and a la carte, bon voyage, rendezvous From German: kindergarten, poodle, yodel, blitzkrieg, zeitgeist, angst, delicatessen, hamburger, schnitzel From Dutch: brandy, yacht, waffle, apartheid, boss, cookie, dam, drill, tattoo, cruiser From Italian: balcony, casino, umbrella, balloon, carnival, ghetto, graffiti, Madonna, Mezzanine, spaghetti, pasticcio, cappuccino, and many other foods , concert, piano, maestro, soprano, andante, opera and other musical terms From Arabic: alcohol, algebra, candy, lemon, azimuth, elixir, giraffe, gazelle, sugar From the languages of India: chutney, bandana, curry, amok polo, bungalow, jungle, loot, shampoo, pajamas From Japanese: futon, tycoon, kimono, Ninja, Karaoke, Zen, karate, sushi, bonsai, origami From African languages: banana, yam, voodoo, banjo, chimpanzee, zebra From Native American languages: chipmunk, moccasin, tipi also spelled teepee , skunk, squash, pecan, persimmon, skunk, totem, quinine, avocado, chocolate, wigwam, raccoon, tomato, hurricane From languages of the Pacific boomerang, kangaroo, sarong, ketchup, koala, kiwi In sum, other languages than Germanic, French, Latin and Greek have contributed 6% to the vocabulary of English, while the 4 % remaining derive from proper names. But English was not always how it is today. Raccoon, tomato, canoe, barbecue, savanna, and hickory have native American roots, although in many cases the original Indian words were mangled almost beyond recognition. Does your boyfriend seem male, manly, macho, virile or masculine? From Latin: aquarium, binoculars, radioactive, ambiguous, intermission, itinerary, rejuvenate, supersonic, quadrangle, submarine, multitude, linguistic From Greek: Zoology, philanthropy, bacteria, chlorophyll, psychosis, cholesterol, cyanide, chromosome, metamorphosis, thermometer, trauma, xenophobia, telegraph, telephone, polymer, orthodoxy The British colonization of North America, Australia and parts of Asia and Africa has resulted in the creation of whole continents speaking English, which in turn has been enriched by the mother tongues of locals and immigrants.


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History of the OED

history of english vocabulary

Then he had to wait for due-north winds, because the land bowed south or the sea into the land — he did not know which. French dominance and prestige in such contexts as the royal court, law, the church and education encouraged extensive borrowing of vocabulary e. The resultant alphabet of 26 letters has both uppercase, or capital, and lowercase, or small, letters. Then he sailed from there south by the land so as he might sail in five days. The contribution of has been on a different level. That is, the form whom may play accusative or dative roles as well as instrumental or prepositional roles , but it is a single form, contrasting with nominative who and genitive whose.

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From old English to modern English

history of english vocabulary

English is the first choice of foreign language in most other countries of the world, and it is that status that has given it the position of a global. Murray now had a large team directed by. Grammar distinctions were lost as many noun and adjective endings were to -e. The content of the Dictionary is also being comprehensively revised. Compound shortenings, after the pattern of Russian agitprop for agitatsiya propaganda, are also used. .

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The evolution of English vocabulary

history of english vocabulary

Just think about the words for all food sorts introduced form each origin language! Here is The Complete Lists. Him wæs geandwyrd, þ æt hi Angle genemnode wæron. In mythology, metamorphosis signifies a magical shape changing; in nature it denotes a postembryonic development such as that of a into a , a into a silkworm, or a chrysalis into a. Archived from on September 11, 2015. As the London standard became used more widely, especially in more formal contexts and particularly amongst the more elevated members of society, the other regional varieties came to be , as lacking social prestige and indicating a lack of education.

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The history of English

history of english vocabulary

Later, as English came into contact with other cultures around the world and distinctive dialects of English developed in the many areas which Britain had colonized, numerous other languages made small but interesting contributions to our word-stock. We debate how local languages have suffered as a result of the spread of English and investigate the consequences of its influence on indigenous communities. The English pastime may be compared, for example, with the French passe-temps, the Spanish pasatiempo, and the Italian passatempo. That is possibly confirmed by observations that simplification of the case endings occurred earliest in the north and latest in the southwest. The Latin language the missionaries brought was still only used by the educated ruling classes and Church functionaries, and Latin was only a minor influence on the English language at this time, being largely restricted to the naming of Church dignitaries and ceremonies priest, vicar, altar, mass, church, bishop, pope, nun, angel, verse, baptism, monk, eucharist, candle, temple and presbyter came into the language this way. By the time of mid 16th - early 17th century , the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. Nouns in Modern English no longer decline for case, except for the.

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History of the OED

history of english vocabulary

The new Anglo-Saxon nation, once known in antiquity as Albion and then Britannia under the Romans, nevertheless became known as Anglaland or Englaland the Land of the Angles , later shortened to England, and its emerging language as Englisc now referred to as Old English or Anglo-Saxon, or sometimes Anglo-Frisian. On April 9, 1865, after a final battle that failed to break through Union forces, Robert E. In 1828, Noah Webster published the first official dictionary of American English, which established differences in spelling between British and American English and further paved the way to differences in vocabulary between these two language varieties. The was much more than modern English, combined with freer , and was grammatically quite similar in some respects to modern. Suffixes may come to be attached to stems quite fortuitously, but, once attached, they are likely to be permanent.

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