The crowd threw stones, fired pistols. It also slashed the workweek to just two or three days. Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860-1915. Together they marched down 7th St on the double track of the Reading Railroad. And unions were full of spies, spreading word of work stoppages to company officials, who would in turn fire potential strike committee members. Two thousand people gathered, while men who had blackened their faces with coal dust set about methodically tearing up tracks, jamming switches, derailing cars, setting fire to cabooses and also to a railway bridge.
Anarchist and -to-be gave a fiery speech. An angry crowd forced the Philadelphia troops to retreat to a roundhouse in the railroad complex, and set engines, buildings, and equipment ablaze. They arrived unarmed and were met by two companies of the 19th Regiment, Pennsylvania National Guard, and a squad of local veterans. At the time, the country was enjoying a great economic boom in the peacetime following the Civil War. At least ten people were killed, all workingmen, most of them not railroaders. The effects were being felt everywhere, including the railroad business. The strikers now multiplied, joined by young boys and men from the mills and factories Pittsburgh had 33 iron mills, 73 glass factories, 29 oil refineries, 158 coal mines.
He proved quite effective in his newfound leadership role, wielding a great deal of support from not only fellow workers but also the general public. As a result, organized labor had little recourse in obtaining better pay, consistent hours, and job protections. In addition, a series of events which had occurred a few years prior could be rightfully argued as its genesis; between November, 1873 and July, 1874 workers struck along eighteen different railroads in response to a series of initial wage cuts. Native-born Americans tended to blame the labor violence on foreign agitators. Mobs of police and mobs of rioters hunted each other down in Chicago. The pursuit broke off after the party crossed the ; the troops continued to march until well into the following evening, when they bivouacked near , on the north side of the Allegheny River.
Vandergriff wound up in a skirmish with militiamen. Confronted by the mayor and ordered to return home, they instead went down to the Irish 6th Ward and returned with a larger crowd. Picturing burnt machinery and twisted debris, Albee documented the local aftermath of what scholars consider the first national labor action in the United States — the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. Workers broke into a gun factory and seized rifles and small arms. Ever since the end of the Civil War the country had been on a railroad building boom. In the end, between Vanderbilt's disregard and Robinson's force, the strikers lost the fight without having won a single concession. Money, technology, greed and a profound lack of government regulation gave rise to new forms of companies and corporations.
Louis, where 500 members of the St. When they were unable to break the strikers up, the governor sent in the militia. The different scale of the event in local settings affected how participants and observers understood the strike. Although nothing much further happened in the Valley, it took a little while for things to calm down. The Great Strike of 1877 is memorable for being the first of many to follow.
Together, at 8:45 am, they captured the main track, took control of the switches, and brought rail traffic to a halt. Hayes sent federal troops to several locations to reopen the railroads. The next day, a crowd of young people, not especially connected with the rally of the evening before, began moving through the railroad yards, closed down the freights, went to the factories, called out the mill workers, the stockyard workers, the crewmen on the Lake Michigan ships, closed down the brickyards and lumberyards. A battle followed; rail property was burned. The militiamen holed up in the roundhouse managed to save the structure, and their lives, by using a water hose.
David M Watt, acting on behalf of railroad superintendent , who was away, requested assistance from Mayor , in clearing the tracks, dispersing the crowd, and resuming operation of the railroad. Despite being painted as villains virtually all of the walkouts had been peaceful. Latta telegraphed Major General James Beaver: Situation in Pittsburgh is becoming dangerous. In the local press as well, some editors adopted the language of Victorian order, but others avoided these rhetorical devices preferring to categorize the events in different terms. It claimed the encounter was at 11p. The Internationalists had something to do with creating scenes of bloodshed.
The party was organised in four sections, by nationality: German, English, French, Bohemian. On July 18, 1877, strikers blockaded the railroad, refusing to let any trains to pass. In addition, more than 120 train engines and more than 1,200 rail cars were destroyed. The conflict began that with a wage reduction on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad quickly escalated as the Governor of Maryland and the President of the B and O called not only for local militia but also federal troops to suppress the strike and reopen the railroads. The event left at least ten dead, including a newsboy and a teenager. My troops will have no blank ammunition, and I give you warning of this in time.
Main article: Growth rates of industrial production 1850s—1913 1850s—1873 1873—1890 1890—1913 4. Angry railroad workers took control of switches and blocked the movement of trains. If you're not sure if something is appropriate for the library, please ask in the. Six hundred freight trains now jammed the yards at Martinsburg. Having incited a hornet's nest the soldiers were forced to retreat back into the local roundhouse. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955 originally published 1944. Everyone knew that railroad workers with hungry families were angry.