It was destined to survive the old houses. It was in the attic with sloping ceiling and a single window so far out on the roof that it seemed not to belong to the place at all. Their large rooms were partitioned into several smaller ones, without regard to light or ventilation, the rate of rent being lower in proportion to space or height from the street; and they soon became filled from cellar to garret with a class of tenantry living from hand to mouth, loose in morals, improvident in habits, degraded, and squalid as beggary itself. Their poor are not, and never were, a burden upon the community. With the appearance of the middleman, wholly irresponsible, and uterly reckless and unrestrained, began the era of tenement building which turned out such blocks as Gotham Court, where, in one cholera epidemic that scarcely touched the clean wards, the tenants died at the rate of one hundred and ninety-five to the thousand of population; which forced the general mortality of the city up from 1 in 41.
One may find for the asking an Italian, a German, a French, African, Spanish, Bohemian, Russian, Scandinavian, Jewish, and Chinese colony. Martha Lamb, commenting on the era of aqueduct building between 1835 and 1845, was a general asylum for vagrants. In one cholera epidemic that scarcely touched the clean wards, the tenants died at the rate of one hundred and ninety-five to the thousand of population I. With scarcely room enough to turn around in they had been compelled to pay five dollars and a half a month in advance. Whether or not the title was clear to the land upon which they were built was of less account than that the rents were collected. Genesis ends with Joseph — for he is the link between the family and the nation.
Where two families had lived ten moved in. Juvenile crime increased fearfully year by year. There were three hundred underground lodging-houses in the city when the Health Department was organized. Plenty such are yet to be found in the Fourth Ward, with here and there one of the original rear tenements. Before charity organization had been accepted as a principle by Christian philanthropy the Jews had in their United Hebrew Charities the necessary clearing house for the speeding and simplifying of the business of helping the poor to help themselves. Neatness, order, cleanliness, were never dreamed of in connection with the tenant-house system, as it spread its localities from year to year; while redress slovenliness, discontent, privation, and ignorance were left to work out their invariable results, until the entire premises reached the level of tenant-house dilapidation, containing, but sheltering not, the miserable hordes that crowded beneath smouldering, water-rotted roofs or burrowed among the rats of clammy cellars. There were three hundred underground lodging-houses in the city when the Health Department was organized.
If there were damages to pay, the tenant had to foot them. On the other, this suffering multitude in its teeming tenements, fettered in ignorance and bitter poverty, struggling undismayed to cast off its fetters and its reproach, and winning in the fight against tremendous odds by the exercise of the same stern qualities that won for their brothers prosperity and praise. That he has received in New York, and no one has cause to regret it except those he left behind. Such, says an official report, is the lack of houseroom in the city that any kind of tenement can be immediately crowded with lodgers, if there is space offered. Their rent was eight dollars and a half for a single room on the top-story, so small that I was unable to get a photograph of it even by placing the camera outside the open door.
The era of the air-shaft has not solved the problem of housing the poor, but it has made good use of limited opportunities. It did not know because it did not care. Annotation: this document is about the new york tenement. Where two families had lived ten moved in. It was in the attic with sloping ceiling and a single window so far out on the roof that it seemed not to belong to the place at all. Plenty such are yet to be found in the Fourth Ward, with here and there one of the original rear tenements. There was just one excuse for the early tenement-house builders, and their successors may plead it with nearly as good right for what it is worth.
Presently it was carried up another story, and another. Tenements are still good property, and the poverty of the poor man his destruction. Young vagabonds, the natural offspring of such home conditions, overran the streets. Since there was a lot more people in New York City more people died. His clannishness, at all events, does not obstruct his citizenship. There were three hundred underground lodging-houses in the city when the Health Department was organized. Their large rooms were partitioned into several smaller ones, without regard to light or ventilation, the rate of rent being lower in proportion to space or height from the street; and they soon became filled from cellar to garret with a class of tenantry living from hand to mouth, loose in morals, improvident in habits, degraded, and squalid as beggary itself.
It was thus the dark bedroom, prolific of untold depravities, came into the world. Their asylums, their nurseries and kindergartens are models of their kind. In their place has come this queer conglomerate mass of heterogeneous elements, ever striving and working like whiskey and water in one glass, and with the like result: final union and a prevailing taint of whiskey. It spread its localities from year to year. The front house followed suit, if the brick walls were strong enough. Those the newcomers, struggling hand to hand with the dire realities of poverty which these, having won home and welcome, are attacking in the rear, faithful none the less, as their problem. Not without opposition; obstacles were thrown in the way of the officials on the one side by the owners of the tenements, who saw in every order to repair or clean up only an item of added expense to diminish their income from the rent; on the other side by the tenants themselves, who had sunk, after a generation of unavailing protest, to the level of their surroundings, and were at last content to remain there.
Not for long, however. International negotiations backed by the threat of force. This question, then, is used to initiate a response among the readers, one of fear and apprehension, in order to make the readers feel a sense of urgency in correcting the evils and problems of the tenement New York city government officials ordered an investigation into the condition of the tenements and found an even deeper problem than imagined. For this edition, prints have been made from Riis' original photographs now in the archives of the Museum of the City of New York. With him he makes a covenant which God says all the nations of the earth will be blessed through! Driven from the old world, received in the new, if sometimes with misgivings, less for what they are than for what they were made, it is worth casting up the account to see how it stands, what they have brought us for what they have received. Felix Adler, who first connected the workshop with the school in New York as a means of training and discipline. It was in the attic with sloping ceiling and a single window so far out on the roof that it seemed not to belong to the place at all.
It took long years of weary labor to make good the claim of the sunlight to such corners of the dens as it could reach at all. In the end Riis acknowledges the only way the problem of the tenements will be fixed is by the very same people that created it. The wretched pile harbored no less than forty families, and the annual rate of deaths to the population was officially stated to be 75 in 1,000. Their comfortable dwellings in the once fashionable streets along the East River front fell into the hands of real-estate agents and boarding-house keepers; and here, says the report to the Legislature of 1857, when the evils engendered had excited just alarm, in its beginning, the tenant-house became a real blessing to that class of industrious poor whose small earnings limited their expenses, and whose employment in workshops, stores, or about the warehouses and thoroughfares, render a near residence of much importance. These tenements were an extreme type of very many, for the big barracks had by this time spread east and west and far up the island into the sparsely settled wards. The system of Jewish charities is altogether admirable. There was the great fair, so fresh in the public mind, at which a fortune was realized for the Jewish charities of the city.
The group traces its beginnings back to the Caucus Mountain region, into present-day Germany as well as Scandinavia and England. It was the rear house, infamous ever after in our citys history. The Jew's rule of life is his faith and it regulates his minutest action. On the one side the mayor of America's chief city opening the great fair with words of grateful appreciation of the civic virtues of a prosperous and happy people, wealth and fashion thronging to its doors and the whole community joining in the glad welcome. It was the tolerance of those habits which was the real evil, for this they were alone responsible. It was a Jew, Dr.