He was also a great exponent of Bengali language. They also consider righteousness as their only way of life. Besides, he also condemned idol worship, discouraged pilgrimages, ceremonies, and penances among the Brahmos. Characteristics of the Reform Movements : An analysis of the reform movements of the 19th century brings out several common features: 1 All the reformers propagated the idea of one God and the basic unity of all religions. Women also took part as members of Executive committee. It enrolled a gigantic membership of 92,000 by 1901.
After that he went to Benares Kashi for learning the intricacies of Sanskrit and Hindu scripture, including the Vedas and Upanishads. The Depressed Classes Mission Society of South India was formed. Contrary to it, the British were very cautious about interference in the socio- religious affairs. This voluminous work would prove to play a central role in the establishment and later growth of the organization which would come to be known as the Arya Samaj. His third son then a boy barely 15 years in age, and the favorite pupil of Vidyasgar, was commonly acclaimed as Debendranath's successor to head the Tattwabodhini.
Rammohan Roy represented the first glimmerings of the rise of national consciousness in India. All these religious movements drew their inspiration from the ancient Indian culture. The influence of the Brahmins over the rich sudras was immense. The tremendous emphasis on the scientific and mechanical ways of life is fast reducing man to the status of a machine. Most Muslims feared that Western education would endanger their religion as it was un-Islamic in character. Though Arya Samaj had not actively participated in politics yet it indirectly helped in the promotion of national consciousness.
In fact the efforts of Swami Dayananda freed the people from the clutches of the western education of Macaulay. Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828. Thus, the Bengal Renaissance blended together the teachings of the Upanishad in order to create public opinion against Hindu superstitions including Sati, infanticide, polygamy, child marriage, caste-division, inter-caste hatred, Dowry, untouchability etc influenced by western education. Later, on the instruction of the Guru, Dayananda Saraswati started fighting against the conservative Hindu religion and wrong traditions. He was a great supporter of Brahmacharya and considered it a most suitable path for the achievement of salvation. This alarmed the Hindu social reformers and they paid special attention to the improvement of the lot of depressed classes.
This movement was opposed to the missionary activities of Arya Samaj and Christianity, as well as the efforts of Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan to westernize the Muslim community. William Bentinck declared illegal the tradition of Sati on Roy' s written petition. They also undertook the study of the Parsi scripture Avesta in a scientific manner. He celebrated the success of the revolution in Spain in 1823 by hosting a public dinner. It propagated the widow remarriage and encouraged inter caste marriage. He was against of Sati system, Polygamy, Child marriage, Caste system and Untouchability. He was born in 1824 A.
Saligram Sahib Bahadur was a government servant in the Postal Department and spent major portion of his income on Satsang. The early name of Swami Dayananda Saraswati was Mool Slianker. He resorted to holding friendly discussions and debates, publishing tracts, treatises and translation of the true ancient literature. He advocated the right of Hindu women over the property. If a woman in her successive transmigration declines doing so, she should not be exempt from shrinking again to life in the body of some female animal. Although people opposed Arya Samaj on account of the introduction of conversion system.
In 1872 the Government passed the Native Civil Marriages Act legalising marriages performed according to Brahmo Samaj rites. Social and Religious Reforms The Brahmo Samaj played an important role in building the modern Indian society. It believed that serving a human being was the same as worshipping God. He supported the revolutions of Naples and Spanish America and condemned the oppression of Ireland by absentee English landlordism and threatened emigration from the empire if the reform bill was not passed. It was then that the woman was allowed to come out of the house. It however, developed conscience to human equality long ago forgotten by the Indian society 14.
It could never make aggressive attack on Christianity and other religions. Again the Brahmos campaigned against such unjust practices and saved the lives of many such girls. The daring escapades of Nabakanta Chatterjee and Barada Nath Halder who rescued many poor widows and Kulin girls in trouble proved their point. During the first half of the 19th century only a handful of Muslims had accepted English education. This Patrika became the principal organ of the Samaj for propagating its views ushering in the era of early journalism. He further studied at London School of Economics and completed masters and doctorate from there as well. They would clean them, feed them and serve them with all the necessities of life so that they could spend their last days or hours in dignity.
It was not segregated like the Africans in South Africa under the system of apartheid. The other significant achievement was the Marriage Act of 1872 which fixed the age of girls to be married and was great step in marital reforms and improving the plight of women in the country. He also set up the Sanskrit Press and Depository, a print shop and a bookstore for this purpose. They condemned religious rites and the rituals, and pleaded for eradication of social evils, female education and improvement in the condition of women. The festival of Shivaratri was being celebrated in the temple. Next to it, the society had perpetrated, all kinds of abuses on the better half of the society.