Nearly everything we do leaves behind some kind of waste. People clean their homes and places of work and which affects the environment and the community. It includes wastes, which are classified as garbage and rubbish, as well as wastes, which are considered to be hazardous to public health and to the environment. Solid wastes can be solid, liquid, semi-solid or containerized gaseous material. The source and quantum of generation of some major industrial wastes is given in Table 5.
During the process of collecting solid waste, the hazardous wastes usually mix with ordinary garbage and other flammable wastes making the disposal process even harder and risky. Incineration This method involves burning of solid wastes at high temperatures until the wastes are turned into ashes. The Department allows alternative sampling scheme on a case-by-case basis after taking into consideration the amount of waste to be classified, the other information available on the waste generation process etc. Agricultural waste like corn cobs, paddy husk, bagasse of sugarcane, waste of wheat, rice and other cereals, cotton stalks, coconut wastes, jute waste etc. Solid Waste waste generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubing, catheters, intravenous sets etc. Materials like glass, metal, plastics, and paper are collected, separated and sent to processing centers where they are processed into new products. In coastal Karnataka, several people died by consuming crabs contaminated with pesticides.
Waste generation encompasses activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown out or gathered together for disposal. Surveys carried out by various agencies show that the health care establishments in India are not giving due attention to their waste management. Generally, these wastes are not reused and accumulate in the ecosystem and some of it move through biogeochemical cycles. Ashes: Ashes are the residues from the burning of wood, coal, charcoal, coke and other combustible materials for cooking and heating in houses, institutions and small industrial establishments. The byproduct of this technology is slurry, settled out the bottom of the digester.
Some of the impacts of accumulation of wastes are described below: Spoilage of Landscape : It is a common practice to dump plastic bags, containers, vegetables, fruit peels, cans etc. Management of Agricultural Wastes: 1. These include markets, roads, buildings, hotels, commercial complexes, hostels, auto workshops, printing press etc. The improper waste disposal creates many ecological and social problems, for instance, accumulation of wastes in the densely populated areas, disposal of urban sewage and industrial wastes discharged into rivers etc. Agriculture Crops, orchards, vineyards, dairies, feedlots, farms. Some of the common solid wastes obtained from these places include glass, rubber waste, plastics, food wastes, wood, paper, metals, cardboard materials, electronics as well as. Many of the larger hospitals have either installed the treatment facilities or are in the process of doing so.
Solid waste is the material generated from various human activities and which is normally disposed as useless and unwanted. Notwithstanding anything contained in the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, or rules there under, untreated biomedical waste shall be transported only in such vehicle as may be authorised for the purpose by the competent authority as specified by the government. As the field of solid waste management advances, solutions are being looked at in a more systematic and holistic way. The generator may dispose of the grit and screenings at any New Jersey landfill permitted to accept such waste, or at any out-of-state facility, in accordance with the requirements of the District Solid Waste Management Plan for the district in which the waste was generated. Bio-medical wastes: Wastes, which are produced from the hospitals, medical centres and nursing homes are called bio-medical wastes. It occupies to large land areas if not properly disposed. It blocks the porosity of the soil 3.
Two worked examples are given for data obtained in Canada. The functional element of Collection includes not only the gathering of solid waste and recyclable materials, but also the transport of these materials, after collection, to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied. Waste characterization revealed the presence of products that give origin to household hazardous waste. Industrialization has brought a lot of good things and bad things as well. We need to be fully aware that improper disposal of waste spoils the beauty of the landscape. Confer, Chief Bureau of Landfill and Hazardous Waste Permitting. Municipal solid waste can be used to generate energy.
This effect could be also observed on the activity of extracted enzymes. Many of these exclusion are related to recycling. The impact of land pollution on human health is indirect. For this reason they require special collection. It mainly consists of earth, stones, concrete, bricks, lumber, roofing materials, plumbing materials, heating systems and electrical wires and parts of general municipal waste stream, but when generated in large amounts at building and demolition sites, it is generally removed by contractors for filling low lying areas and by urban local bodies for disposal at landfills.
Municipal solid waste Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. In such cases the homeowners or the officials may write a letter to this office providing information regarding the generation of such waste, nature of contamination, amount of waste, proposed disposal of waste and request the exempt classification letter. Institutional Schools, hospitals, prisons, government centers. The sampling location is at the following coordinates 34°41 0 43. Effects of Hazardous Wastes : As most of the hazardous wastes are disposed off or in land, the most serious environmental effect is contaminated ground water. They are highly toxic in nature. Separating different types of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source.
Typically the wastes that qualify for this exemption are soils contaminated with home heating oil due to tank leakage, or oil tank removal at a privately owned home; and debris generated by municipal or state officials from spill clean-up at a motor vehicle accident scene. Fly, ash is the major solid waste from thermal power plants. Their presence in public places is particularly offensive and emits foul smell from the aesthetic point of view. Control of Hazardous Wastes : Common methods for disposing of hazardous wastes are land disposal and incineration Industries need to be encouraged to generate less hazardous waste in the manufacturing process. It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected. In hospitals there are different types of solid wastes produced.
Exposure to high concentration of pollutants may cause acute injuries like chlorosis, discolouration and even the death of plants. They cause spread of many diseases. It requires immediate attention in its storage, handling and disposal. Among the large animals are Horses, Cows, Goats, Sheep and the like. Urban or Municipal wastes 2. Of the components of retail sales, per capita sales of eating establishments proved to have the greatest influence on waste generation. Mechanised street sweeping is the dominant practice in the developed countries.