British east india company. Company rule in India 2019-01-10

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The British East India Company

british east india company

The passing of the Tea Act imposed no new taxes on the American colonies. Indian rulers adopted red serge jackets for their own forces and retainers as if to capture their magical qualities. The Company had at various stages extended its influence to , the , and Java. Since the British territories in north India had now extended up to Delhi, the Act also sanctioned the creation of a. Each of the three companies and later five others that were given contracts in 1859 was company in England with its raised in. The Company armed forces, territories and possessions were taken over by the Crown.

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The East India Company: The original corporate raiders

british east india company

The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one which virtually ruled as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution in 1858. This Act directed the promotion of the Governor of Bengal, to the rank of Governor General over the entire Company-controlled India. The Orientalists were, however, soon opposed by advocates of an approach that has been termed. However cargoes of Indian cloth sparked growing interest amongst consumers in England. This mission was highly successful and Jahangir sent a letter to the king through Sir Thomas Roe. Thus in 1806, at the time of the , the combined strength of the three presidencies' armies stood at 154,500, making them one of the largest in the world. The tax on tea had existed since the passing of the 1767 Townshend Revenue Act.


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The East India Company and its role in ruling India

british east india company

A Brief History of the British East India Company Between early 1600s and the mid-19th century, the British East India Company lead the establishment and expansion of international trade to Asia and subsequently leading to economic and political domination of the entire Indian subcontinent. The rural Hindu and of this region, known as Hindi, lit. However, since the Chinese authorities had banned the importation and consumption of opium, the Company engaged them in the , and at its conclusion, under the , gained access to five Chinese ports, , , , Shanghai, and ; in addition, Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown. A decisive victory by Sir Robert Clive at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 established the British East India Company as a military as well as a commercial power. But it quickly became evident that in practice the original company scarcely faced any measurable competition. Four telegraph offices, mainly for shipping-related business, were also opened along the river that year. The company started steady trade in cotton, silk, indigo, saltpeter, and an array of spices from South India.

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Company rule in India

british east india company

Coercive action, threats and diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united struggle against it. The Court of Directors of the Company were required under the Act to submit all communications regarding civil, military, and revenue matters in India for scrutiny by the British government. Expansion The company, under such obvious patronage, soon managed to eclipse the , who had established their bases in and Bombay which was later ceded to England as part of the dowry of Catherine de Braganza. He was later joined by the district magistrate. Haileybury emphasised the Anglican religion and morality and trained students in the classical Indian languages. A close study of the history of the company shows how the British imperial project was re-imagined over the course of its history. Protest against British rule did not go away, however.

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East India Company

british east india company

It also traded cotton, silk, indigo, saltpeter, and tea and transported slaves. In the next two years, it managed to build its first factory as the trading posts were known in the town of Machilipatnam in the Coromandel Coast in the Bay of Bengal. The members of the Board of Control were the Chancellor of the Exchequer, a Secretary of State, and four , nominated by the King. The Bengal Famine of 1770, in which one-sixth of the local population died, set the alarm bells ringing in Britain. So how did the East India Company make its fortune in Chinese tea? Legacy In the early 1860s all of the company's Indian possessions were appropriated by the Crown. Canal construction, under Cautley's supervision, now went into full swing.

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Company rule in India

british east india company

Thus, the British had secured the entire region of Southern India with the exception of small enclaves of French and local rulers , Western India, and Eastern India. American colonists were outraged over the tea tax, which had existed since the 1767 Townshend Revenue Act and did not get repealed like the other taxes in 1770, and believed the Tea Act was a tactic to gain colonial support for the tax already enforced. Soon afterwards Warren Hastings arrived in Calcutta as the first Governor-General of the Company's Indian dominions and resolved to overhaul the Company's organisation and in particular its judicial affairs. Eventually, ships belonging to the company arrived in India, docking at Surat, which was established as a trade transit point in 1608. Although their first revenue settlement turned out to be essentially the same as the more informal pre-existing Mughal one, the Company had created a foundation for the growth of both information and bureaucracy. An influence on the development of this revenue policy were the economic theories then current, which regarded agriculture as the engine of economic development, and consequently stressed the fixing of revenue demands in order to encourage growth. Although the Government of India had no other than the provision of the underlying land free of charge, it had the onus of continuing to provide the 5 percent return in the event of net loss, and soon all anticipation of profits would fall by the wayside as the outlays would mount.


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The British East India Company

british east india company

The original company faced opposition to its monopoly, which led to the establishment of a rival company and the fusion 1708 of the two as the United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East Indies. The Bill was defeated due to intense lobbying by Company loyalists and accusations of nepotism in the Bill's recommendations for the appointment of councillors. It soon began to transform from a trading company to a ruling endeavor following their victory in the Battle of Plassey against the ruler of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daullah in the year 1757. This is variously taken to have commenced in 1757, after the , when Mir Jafar, the new enthroned by , became a puppet in the Company's hands; in 1765, when the Company was granted the diwani, or the right to collect revenue, in and ; or in 1773, when the Company established a capital in , appointed its first , , and became directly involved in governance. By the 1820s British nationals could transact business or engage in missionary work under the protection of the Crown in the three presidencies. That trade had been a monopoly of Spain and until the 1588 by gave the English the chance to break the monopoly.


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British East India Company Research Papers

british east india company

But the Mughal Empire was already on the wane after the demise of , and was breaking up into pieces and enclaves. The new policies were designed for an elite civil service career that minimized temptations for corruption. The expectation behind the permanent settlement was that knowledge of a fixed government demand would encourage the zamindars to increase both their average outcrop and the land under cultivation, since they would be able to retain the profits from the increased output; in addition, it was envisaged that land itself would become a marketable form of property that could be purchased, sold, or mortgaged. Meanwhile, British influence continued to expand; in 1845, the Danish colony of Tranquebar was sold to Great Britain. In the rural areas, or the Mofussil, the —the rural overlords with the hereditary right to collect rent from peasant farmers—also had the power to administer justice. The Governors of these Presidencies were directed in general terms to obey the orders of the Governor-General-in-Council, and to transmit to him intelligence of all important matters.

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