In the writings of al-Muhasibi d. Many of the doctors rejected the claims of astrology that the conjunction of humours in the body was ruled by the conjunction of the stars; the claims of the alchemists also were not wholly accepted. Their testimony, handed down mainly by oral transmission, did not assume its definite shape until much later, and by that time it was certainly swollen by accretions, but it seems plausible to suggest that from an early time those who had known and followed Muhammad would have tried to model their behaviour upon his. They tell us that he was born in Mecca, a town in western Arabia, perhaps in or near the year 570. Of course it didn't hurt that secular leaders would build and maintain mosques, endow religious colleges, and generally look to secure legitimacy from the religious leaders. Some of their tribal chiefs exercised leadership from oasis towns and were used by the imperial governments to keep other nomads away from the settled lands and to collect taxes. They established their first important base at Qayrawan in the former Roman province of Africa Ifriqiya, the present day Tunisia ; from there they moved westwards, reached the Atlantic coast of Morocco by the end of the seventh century and crossed into Spain soon afterwards; at the other extreme, the land beyond Khurasan reaching as far as the Oxus valley was conquered and the first Muslim advances were made into north-western India.
I am most grateful to Elizabeth Bullock, who typed successive drafts with devotion and skill, to my editors at Faber and Faber, Will Sulkin and John Bodley, to John Flower who drew the maps, Brenda Thomson who copy-edited a difficult manuscript in a sensitive and intelligent way, Bryan Abraham who corrected the proofs with scrupulous care, and Hilary Bird who made the index. Understandably, Hourani treats his starting point as the emergence of the school of thought that has become Islam — sources for any earlier period are patchy — but it also causes a problem in that the period covered by the 11th I'm always impressed by scholars who can write these grand synthetic histories that draw together vast spans of time and space. The caliph was not a prophet. There was, first of all, among converts to Islam, and the Iranians in particular, resentment against the fiscal and other privileges given to those of Arab origin, and this grew as the memory of the first conquests became weaker. He passed part of his youth in political activity, and his later years as court-poet to a succession of rulers, in Aleppo, Cairo, Baghdad and Shiraz. From now onwards, in the east there lay regions ruled by states with their centres in Iran, Transoxania or northern India, and to the west those ruled from Cairo or cities in the Maghrib and Spain; southern Iraq, which had been the centre, became a frontier region.
All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. Bulliet, Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1979. Spain was part of the Mediterranean world, and the ports on its east coast linked it with the other countries of the basin: Italy, the Maghrib, Egypt and Syria. The first is the Arabian peninsula, where the Arabic-speaking Muslim community had grown up. From the western desert of Egypt to the Atlantic coast there stretches a fourth region, known in Arabic as the Maghrib, the land of the west or of the setting sun; this includes the countries now known as Libya or Tunisia or Algeria and Morocco. In the process of doing so, they may have introduced new elements into the poems, changing the language to suit their ideas of what was correct and even forming qasidas by combining shorter pieces.
The latter is measured by a complete revolution of the earth around the sun, which takes approximately 365 days, but the former consists of twelve months each of which corresponds to a complete revolution of the moon around the earth; the length of a year measured in these terms is approximately 11 days less than that of a solar year. A History of the Arab Peoples chronicles the rich spiritual, political and cultural institutions of this civilization through thirteen centuries of war, peace, literature and religion. What happened to the great expectations raised by the rise of Islam? From the coastal plain there rises a mountain range reaching a height of more than 3,000 metres; here springs and streams give water which, distributed by an ancient system of irrigation, made settled agriculture possible. It will be clear to specialists that, in a book with so large a scope, much of what I say is based upon the research of others. Hourani was able to do this largely because his grasp of the relevance and adequacy of his predecessors' arguments was second to none; his achievement lies in his ability to reject the reasoning of other historians while still making good use of their evidence. He was an example of the arabized and islamized secretaries who were bringing into Arabic ideas and literary genres derived from their own inherited tradition, but side by side with them was another group of writers who drew their inspiration from the vast world which had been brought into existence by the spread of Islam and its empire: the multiplicity of peoples and countries, the new variety of human characters, the new problems of morality and behaviour.
As this happened, the nature of the population changed, by the coming in of Turkish tribesmen and the conversion of much of the Greek population. Those whose opposition to Byzantine rule was expressed in terms of religious dissidence might find it easier to live under a ruler who was impartial towards various Christian groups, particularly as the new faith, which had as yet no fully developed system of doctrine or law, may not have appeared alien to them. Williams, Al-Tabari: the Early Abbasid Empire, Vol. If you are looking for an introductory book on Arab speaking and Islamic culture I would suggest Destiny Disrupted, it is a lot more accessible to a first time reader and shorter too. In the countries conquered by the Arabs, and particularly those where there was a large Arab immigration, a new land-holding class grew up. Particularly good when discussing the Palestinian tragedy.
Like most of my fellow Americans I always wanted to use that phrase. In so doing, the local bodies of tradition were unified. This is a dense book in places — but then it does cover a large sweep of North Africa and West Asia over 1400 years in only 450 pages — but well worth it. Arab history is full of religion that we know little about, and also full of people and places that we have never heard of. All show the same basic design.
The first half of the book is particularly valuable. There was another kind of building which played a special part in binding together the Muslim community beyond the bounds of a single city or region. A settled countryside produced grain, fruits, wine and oil, and trade was carried along peaceful sea-routes; in the great cities, a wealthy class of many origins shared in the Greek and Latin culture of the empire. Its cultivable land and pastures also attracted Arab settlers. There are also traces of an indigenous tradition: the moral ideas in some ways continue those prevalent in Arabia, although in others they break with them; in the early revelations the tone is that of the Arabian soothsayer, stammering out his sense of an encounter with the supernatural. The book is jam-packed with information. A new ruling group was formed largely from army leaders or tribal chiefs; the leading families in Mecca and Madina ceased to be important because they were distant from the seat of power, and they tried more than once to revolt.
At a rather later period, they were also to enter the theoretical systems by which Sufi writers were to try to explain their search and what they hoped to find at the end of it. In the sixth century, a centre of Christianity had been destroyed by a king attracted to Judaism, but invasions from Ethiopia had restored some Christian influence; both the Byzantines and the Sasanians had been involved in these events. Begitulah istimewanya sejarawan kerana mereka mampu melihat masa depan melalui kaca mata masa lampau. They came to accept all four of the first caliphs as legitimate, and as virtuous or rightly guided rashidun ; later caliphs might not always have acted justly, but they should be accepted as legitimate so long as they did not go against the basic commandments of God. Thus the two processes drew closer to each other. The most important trade was that which went along the southern coast, linking Spain and the Maghrib with Egypt and Syria, with Tunisia as the entrepôt.
Leader of the community, but not in any sense a messenger of God, he could not claim to be the spokesman of continuing revelations; but an aura of holiness and divine choice still lingered around the person and office of the early caliphs, and they did claim to have some kind of religious authority. It was more difficult for the caliph to rule the Maghrib, but it was also less important. By the fifteenth century the flood of Arabic Islam had covered the whole region, and for the most part it was Islam in its Sunni form, although adherents of doctrines evolved in the early centuries still existed. The centre of the peninsula is a vast plateau surrounded and cut across by mountain ranges. There were more complicated arrangements for irrigated land, or that on which trees were to be planted.